a review of solid-state lighting and its impact on the marketing and production of decorative coatings.
National lighting in the form of LEDs is rapidly replacing existing inefficient lights and replacing the world.
Lighting standards implemented in phases from 2014 do not prohibit incandescent lamps or any particular type of lights, but they do require that the lights need to reduce energy by about 25%.
Energy Independence and Security Law of the two parties in 2007 (EISA 2007)
These efficiency standards have been established.
Many commercial lights, including halogen lamps, CFLs lamps and led lights, meet these standards.
The new bulbs offer a wide range of options in terms of color and brightness, many of which take much longer than traditional bulbs.
However, the spectral distribution of the flux of some of these new lamps does not match or even correspond to the spectral power distribution of traditional office and home lighting.
In this review, the impact of the new lights on the design, marketing and production of modern decor is assessed.
The decorative paint industry has been following recommended guidelines for decades to produce colors
An acceptable match under a series of standard light sources (D65, CWF, A)
This is the representative of the lights in most public facilities. The new solid-
State lamps do not present the object color in a way similar to the currently used standardized light source.
The main obstacle facing paint manufacturers is the lack of standards on how to test colors
Match quality consistency under new lights.
Since the energy-saving lighting industry is still in the stage of technological development, it seems that it will take some time to reach any agreement on the features of modern lamps and lanterns.
Therefore, prior to the official reference light source release, guidance was provided on the creation and/or use of light source data representing these lights.
The decorative and protective coatings industry has been providing customers with customized color coatings for decades.
The industry followed the textile industry\'s leading position in the early days and evaluated the quality of the color
Match in some form of daylight and under the Astad incandescent lamp.
These lights are considered to be examples of the main light sources that humans encounter in their daily lives.
It is generally believed that if a custom color is matched under both lights, then the match is constant.
Figure 1 shows a set of historical CIE light sources for paint color matching.
Although illuminantsB and C are outdated and found in informative attachments, light sources can be found in illumin Publication 15: 04. (1)
Then the lighting engineers came and they developed a tube fluorescent lamp for fluorine and phosphorus.
As an example of this impact, a new office building is being built in the West with the latest cost
Save on lighting and custom dyedbeige carpets.
The carpet was laid and checked under the light of a string of incandescent lamps and everything looked good.
Then, after cleaning up the area, a new fluorescent lamp was installed and powered on. . .
The carpet looks light green. (2)
Architects and interior designers do not think of this office space at all.
Figure 2 shows the spectral power distribution of single phosphorus cool-
A white fluorescent lamp, often called office lighting.
Therefore, a new requirement was added during the competition.
Now all the matches will be verified under daylight, incandescent and cooling --
White fluorescence (CWF)
The lighting cabinet was expanded and additional lights were added.
Once again, the matching products are consistent.
Then, it is thought that, although it may not be very strong, if it is acceptable to match under three sources, then it is acceptable under all sources. Color-
The matching computer system begins to provide the ability to calculate under three light sources and weights the matching.
The same color spectrum index has been developed to quantify the amount of changes that a pair of matching colors will experience as the source changes.
Although light sources close to daylight standard sources are easy to implement, fluorescent sources have proved to be a problem.
In those days, instruments and software lacked core memory, and only 16 spectral values were used for most matches.
The CWF lamp has significant total radiation in the mercury discharge wire, all of which are in the integer 20-
The nm point starting at 400 nm. EdStearns, (3)
At Clemson University, a method is proposed in which the line will be separated from the continuum of phosphorus and from 20-
The contribution of Nm data and narrow emission lines will be added to the region under fluorescence emission.
Therefore, now a paint formulator can develop a new formula and calculate the matching level under the three light sources (D, A, CWF)
And visually verify the forecast in his lighting cabinet. Life was good. When Sherwin-
Williams and Benjamin Moore begin installation
Matching System in business and consumer trade
The sales store, system is also equipped with multiple sources and provides a way to evaluate the same color spectrum of recipes or prescriptions.
In a business location, there is either a simple lighting cabinet or a custom inspection area.
However, life is complicated again.
So far, daylight is basically an incandescent lamp with a blue filter, a color-corrected filter, as it was when Norman McWhite was developed (4)
Davis and Gibson (5)
At the National Bureau of Standards, standardize the light sources called cie B and C (see Fig. 1).
But scientists from the Kodak, the National Research Council of Canada and the National Physics Laboratory of the United Kingdom
At different times and data, the radiation readings and data of the Northern Sky are averaged and then used by NIST as what we now call Karhunen-
Orthogonal components of decomposition or properties, even principal components.
This mathematics was developed in the middle and late 1940 s, Kodak in Concorde (6)
Data from Simmonds (7)
And provide it to Dean Judd (8)at theNIST.
From this decomposition, he was able to calculate three orthogonal functions that could reconstruct any phase from an understanding of the color temperature or chroma of natural outdoor daylight.
The change of daylight draws a curve on the color chart, just like the various temperatures of incandescent or black body light sources.
But the curve does not intersect.
Therefore, cie defines two curves in the 1960 uniform color chart, one for the black body trajectory and one for the daylight trajectory.
The Daylight lighting series is called D, and the two most commonly used series are D65, representing the maximum mean value of all North day readings, with associated color temperature of 6504 K and D75, representing a cloudless North day and a color temperature of 7506 K.
[45 Noon Daydegrees]
North latitude has been represented by CIE beenrepreted light source B now by CIE D50.
Figure 3 shows several examples of the CIE daylight trajectory. [
Figure 1 slightly][
Figure 3 slightly]
Lighting at the point of sale matches one of the biggest challenges in the paint industry
Custom matching paint
The retail store, hardware store or building supplies the matching paint of the warehouse.
Space is often a lot of competition in apremium, floor and shelf space.
Yetcustomers will purchase custom colors from fan groups or color sample displays, or by matching samples of an object from a home representing the desired color.
It is clearly expected that any color developed in the store will continue to match the color at home.
Most of the time, the process is acceptable, sometimes unacceptable, and sometimes frustrating failure.
More advanced retailers and paint suppliers have developed standardized observation areas where customers can check their color references and paint samples under some form of daylight or outdoor lighting
Give away incandescent lamps and then fluorescent lamps.
But what kind of fluorescent lamp will be used? Cool-
Whitening is out of date at home due to its \"cool\" or greener look and render.
Therefore, awarm white will be provided in some places (WWF)
Therefore, check the color under the warm fluorescent lamp and under the warm incandescent lamp (Fig. 4). [
Figure 4 slightly]
The light in the viewing area may be more suitable for the light in the home than the CIE reference light source in the color matching software.
So, how good is the color of viewingarea rendering
Does the software forecast match?
Maybe not very good.
A high-precision lighting cabinet can cost as much as possible, and it will be very troublesome to maintain.
The project compromised that the lamp is usually a tubular or compact fluorescent lamp for the day and the fluorescent lamp.
Then low wattage (60 W)
Incandescent lamps are also available.
But modern fluorescent lamps are generally three.
In computer software, fluorescent design and the spectrum of these lights are not good materials for CIE daylight and CWF or WWF (Fig. 5).
How much trouble is modern fluorescent lamps for color retailers? In the mid-
1970 The retail apparel industry in the UK has adopted the new 4000 K tri-
Fluorescent tubes for commercial floor lighting.
According to Rod McDonald, this conversion saves about 100,000,000 [Pound)
About 1,000,000,000 of the textile industry in terms of energy costs and costsPound)in badcolor-matches. (9)
I don\'t think the shift is so dramatic in the United States, but at about the same time, large department stores in North America were re-established
According to Bob Hillman, they complain with 3000 K three phosphor lights, and according to legal color complaints, their product returns are $100,000,000 a year. (10)
Where will the lighting industry go?
Energy Independence and Security Law of the two parties in 2007 (EISA2007)
Establish efficiency standards.
While the federal government continues to try to convince the public that they do not \"ban\" incandescent lamps, the bill requires that only halogen lamps that work below the design voltage will be able to reach the level of efficiency.
This leads to a loss of life, so a technology like a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)
LED lights will overtake them soon.
We have seen an increase in the cost of incandescent lamps and a decrease in the cost of CFL.
The cost of LED lights has fallen more slowly because there is still no standard technology and LED manufacturers are applying for patents to try to prevent future competition (Fig. 6).
The situation has become very chaotic.
CIE is currently revising many of its old suggestions about lighting and color, but the new lights change too quickly to capture all the issues.
The CFL technology is based on multi-fluorescent tubes, so the array of products becomes amazing.
What was the simple decision in the past to buy fluorescent lamps (
Check diameter, wattage and pin)
Then select WWF, CWF, or DAY, and now have become a dragon-love array consisting of 2700, 3000, 3500, 4000, 5000, 6500, 7500, and then each array is flooded.
In some cases, manufacturers seem to be competing with themselves in an attempt to get consumers to know nothing about the products being purchased.
For example, in reviewing the product of this article, I found that GE provided the energy smart soft white 2700 K CFL light, followed by the Energy Smart warm white 2700 K CFL light, has almost the same spectral power distribution (Fig. 7). [
Figure 5 Slightly][
Figure 6 slightly]These tri-
The color presented by the Phosphor CFL lamp is very different from that of a single phosphor lamp.
The lighting industry has proved that this technology is better than incandescent lamps and CWF.
They also provide more light per watt of electricity.
It is generally believed that these perceptions are due to the narrow nature of the emission of fluorescent bodies, especially the long-wavelength emission.
Narrow, high-intensity spikes introduce the problem of meta-pattern matching--
Small differences in the reflection curves of the standard and batch can be amplified by strong radiation spikes.
In 1980, CIE provided this information in the revision of its publication of color studies.
Publication forms for spectrum of 15, 12 fluorescent lamps.
F2 is an example of a standard CWF light, F7 is a daylight light and F11 is 4000 K (like the TL84)tri-
The fluorescent lamp and the F12 are 3000 K (
Like the Super Cup)tri-phosphor lamp.
In 2004, they added 14 additional fluorescent light spectra to the table.
The associated color temperature of the new lamp is between 2900 K and 6500 K, but there is no light spectrum of 2700 K.
Today, LED lights are promoted as a replacement for CFLlamps, because there is no more mercury in the lamp, so the environmental harm will be less if the lamp should be broken.
The CFL lamps still contain some mercury liquids that produce a gas phase that responds to discharge at a low pressure of the amplifier.
Therefore, compared with CFL lamps, the new LED lights are both more efficient and greener than incandescent lamps (Fig. 8). TheLED-
The base Light is a brand new category of lighting, commonly referred to as solid lighting
National lighting or SSL. [
Figure 7 Slightly]
CIE has not released the reference spectrum yet, as they do with the release of fluorescent lamps or standard spectra, just as they do with the release of sunlight and incandescent lamps.
The suggestion that such reference lighting is defined has been strongly opposed by the lighting industry as there are still many new technologies under development and many new companies entering the SSL market.
Companies like Cree, SORA and andSATCO have never produced incandescent or fluorescent lamps, but they are now competing with GE, Philips, OSRAM/Sylvania and Toshiba in the SSLmarket.
LED lights producing white light have many configurations (
A blue LED plus a yellow fluorescent body), (
Purple LED with green and red fluorescent body)
Three LED sources (
Blue, green, red)
Four sources (
Blue, green, amber, red)
Organic LED light source.
The Led chip is configured as A replacement for Type A Lights (
Chen Guoxi incandescentlamp format)
, Linear fluorescent replacement, MR16 spotlights and floodlights for display windows and housing, building washing lighting with large-format lens systems, and long string light sources on flexible backing.
So your client chose a chip.
Store lighting, color required-
Match/assign the system and the software to predict the matching of daylight, incandescent, fluorescent, then take the paint home and apply it and watch it below. . .
CFL or SSL lighting?
Will they be happy with your product?
For now, only time will tell us.
But now the paint industry may be able to do something to turn this change into SSL and mitigate the economic impact of this change (Fig. 9). [
What the paint industry can do to adapt to SSL The first task is to determine how to know how the new light will present the paint formula.
Therefore, some standard tables need to be adopted to integrate the measurement results of customer references, product standards and bulk scrollingouts.
But how do I create these tables for integration?
12 The published standard E308 contains tables and methods for obtaining the highest precision numerical integration to convert the reading of the broadband wide luminosity meter to the equivalent of using a high precision, narrow bandwidth Laboratory Reference
These lighting tables of 10 and 20 nm are available and are used by most suppliers.
Although numerical integration with such a wide interval produces poor accuracy, the error is canceled when comparing the readings of the standard color chip and the production color chip.
Instruments and software using ASTM tables align or better the numerical integration of the three-stimulus values with the measurement error of the instrument.
But more can be achieved.
Studies of the bandwidth impact suggest that it is necessary to correct the reading of the 10 or 20 nm spectral window to be equivalent to 1-
Refer to the nm spectral window of the instrument to obtain numerical integration as accurate as possible.
There are many different ways to \"de-convolution\" slit functions from spectral data.
CIE Division 1 on light and color has several active groups on this issue.
The ASTM method is to provide a polynomial function that \"sharpened\" The spectral readings, as if they were captured by a narrower window. [
Figure 9 omitted[
Figure 10 slightly][
Figure 11 omitted][
The discussion about this spectral band-through problem is important because both the spectrum distribution of CFL and LED lights contain radiation spikes narrower than 10 nm.
Therefore, one cannot simply get a table of light values at 31 points and obtain reliable three-stimulus data.
Members of the paint industry need to work together to define and adopt a set of reference SSL and CFL spectrain, which can be used to evaluate the quality of the competition produced by the pos system.
As found in the case of CWF, the spike source produces a strong meta-spectrum mismatch, so the contribution of these peaks must be accurately characterized. Once, ASTM (13)
The paint and related coatings committee D01 is one of the largest and most active committees in the ASTM Committee.
The committee is a member of the d01 subcommittee.
26 about the color of the paint.
This sub-committee is almost non-existent.
The paint industry needs to start a new activity within 1. 1.
Industry standard set for creating cfl and SSL lighting tables.
These tables require data for narrow pass bands, typically 1 nm, with a sampling interval of 1 nm from 360 to 780nm.
There are a number of spectrum radiometers that can provide this data at reasonable prices.
Because the illumination table is a relative spectral distribution, data collection is not important in geometry.
The white diffusion plate made of sintering sifluoride can be used as a target, and the Spectral radiometer will sample the radiation flux emitted by the plate.
Once the data is taken, then 1. 1.
26 should work with ASTM e12.
04 produce new lighting tables.
These tables can be added to ASTM E12 standard E30814 or to the new ASTM d01 standard for POS paint matching.
Sales customer paint matching has become an important aspect of decorative paint marketing plan.
This is good for paint manufacturers, DIY stores and consumers as they are able to buy paint to add personal color to the living space.
Introduction of new energy
Efficient Lighting Technology presents new challenges for paint POS matching for home and office use.
Given the current state of color management technology, these challenges are not insurmountable, but they require the paint industry to work together to meet the challenges.
By working together, members can develop and maintain lighting tables and three stimulus integrated weight sets that will meet the needs of today\'s lighting and will be able to change and adapt to the development of solid lighting technologies in the future.
Data used to develop the \"average\" LED light spectral power distribution curve in the figure
Can be used to develop the anASTM E 308 Weighted table.
This table can be uploaded in color.
Matching software, most of which have used the E308 table (Figs. 11 and 12). DOI: 10. 1007/s11998-015-9704-1 D. C. Rich ([mail])
Color Research Laboratory, kalstadt Sun Chemistry, New Jersey, USAmail: Danny.
Rich @ sunchemical.
ASTM E308 weight table for 2700 k cfl (Table 1)
Pump LED lights (Table 2). References (1. )
CIE published 15: 4, the Central Bureau of Statistics of CIE.
VIENNA, Austria (2004). (2. )Late Dr. F. W. Billmeyer Jr.
Personal communication. (3. )
\"Used to calculate the weight of the three stimulus values.
\"Clemson\'s comments on industrial management ---
Textile Science, 14 (1)79-113 (1975)(4. )
US patent 1,249,443 \"color identification device\", Norman McWhite (1917). (5. )
Davis, Raymond, Gibson, Carcassonne G, Haupt, Geraldine W, \"Spectral Energy Distribution of A, B, and C of the International Committee of lighting light sources\" J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. . 50 31-37 (1953)(6. )
The spectral energy distribution of Condit, HR, Grum, F, \"Sunlight. \" J. Opt. Soc. Am. . 53 1340 (1963)(7. )
\"The application of feature vector analysis in photographic and optical response data. \" J. Opt. Soc. Am. . 53 968 (1963)(8. )
Judd, DB, MacAdam, DL, Wyszecki, G, \"the spectral distribution of typical daylight is a function of the relevant color temperature. \" J. Opt. Soc. Am. . 54 1031-1040 (1964)(9. )
Private newsletter by Roderick McDonald. (10. )
Private communications by Robert Hillman. (11. )
Herrmann J \"ultimate bulb test: incandesscentvs.
Compact fluorescent. LED. \" Pop. Meek, (2012).